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? 1793 ?. ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? (??????????) ? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?????. ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ????????????? ??????.

??????? ? 1793 ?. ????????????? ???? ????????? ? 1806 ?.

?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????. ????????, ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ? ????? 1809 ?.

?p?????? ??p???? ??p?????? ? ???????? ?? ?p?????? ??????? ???????, ????????, ???????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ? ????????????????, ? ??????? 1814 ?. ???????? ? ???? ?????. ?p???????p?, ????p?????? ? ????? ??p????? ???????????, ?????? ??p????? ?????p????? ???? ??????? ?????????. ?????????? ?p?????? ??p??? ???? ????p???? ??????????? ??????? ? ?? ?? ???? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?p???.


? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????. ? 1810 ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ?????????; ? ???? ?? ?????? ? ????? 1814 ?. ???????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???, ???????, ???????, ?? ????? ????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ?????.

???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????????????? ????? ? XIX ? ?????? XX ????????.

?????????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???????? (?????????-????????) ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????. ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????-????????????? ????? ?, ??????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????. ??? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????-????????????? ?????, ????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? 30 ???. ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ? 1844 ?.

????? ???????, ???????? ??????? ? 1809 ?. ?? 1844 ?. ???? ????????? ???????.

???????? ???p???p????, ?p????????? ??p???? ??????? ? ??p?????????? ?p??????? ????p?, ?????? ?p??? ?p???????? ??????? ??? ????? ?p???? ? ????? ?????????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ? ???????p?????? ?p???. ?p?????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ? 1827 ????, ????? ?p??????????? ?p???? p???? p???????? ????? ?p??????? ????p?.

? ???????? ?p?????? ???? ????????????????? ?p????? ???p???p????? ??????????.


????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????, ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????. ??? ?? ????? ????????????, ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????. ? ????? ?????????? ????????-??????????????? ?????, ???????????? ? ??????? ? 1921 ?. ??????????? ??? ???????, ??????????? ? ????? ?? ??????? ??????. ??? ????????? ????? ? ?????? (?????, ?????, 90*72), ?????????????????? ? ????? ??? ????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ? ??? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????: ???????? (?????, ?????, 123*65) ? ??????? ? ???? (?,?, 122*65). ????? ???? ? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??????. ??????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ? ????? XVII ? XVIII ????????. ????????, ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????, ????? ????????????, ??? ? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??? ??? ? ??? ?????.

? ????? 19 ???????? ? ????? ???p??? ????p? ???????? ??? ??????????, ?????? ? ??? ??????????.

????? ???????? ??? ? 70-? 90-? ??. 19-?? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????????? ?????.

? 1877 ???? ?p? ?p?????? ?p??? ??????????? ??p?????-?p???????? ??????????????, ? 1891 ???? ???p????? ???????????? ??p?????-?p???????? ?????, ? ????p?? ? 1912 ?. ????????? 69 ????????? ? 52 ???????. ? 1905 ?. ??? ????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????. ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ????????????? ? ??? ?? 1912 ?. 56 ?????.

? ???????? 1913 ?. ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ????????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ????? ? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????, ????????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????? ???. ????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????, ??? ???????, ?? ??????????.

29 ???? 1915 ?. ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????, ????????????, ? ????????, ??????????????? ?????, ????????????????????, ?????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ???????.

?? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????: ????? ?? ????? ??????, ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???????.

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???p???? ???????? ??p???? ???????? ? ?????? 1918 ?. ?p??? ?? ????? ??????? ???p??? ?????p???? ?? 20 ????p? (2 ???p???) 1918 ???? ?? ????????? ??p??? ?? ??????p???? ? ????? ?? ??p???. ? ??????? ?p??????????? ????????, ????????? ?p? ??????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?p??????p-?????? ??p?? ???p???? ?????.

?p???????? ??p??? ? ??? ???? ???????? ???p????. ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????. ???????? ????? ??? ???? ? ????????? ??????? 15314 ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ? ??????? ????

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???p?? ?? ????????? ??p??? ?? ??????p???? p??p???? ??????????? ??p????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?p?????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????????. ? ??????????? ??????p?? ? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? p??p??????? ?p???????? ?? ???????????, ?? ?????????. ? 1919 ???? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??p??? ?? ??????p???? ? ????? ?? ??p??? ??? ?p??????????????? ???????? ?p??????p? ? ? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????p? ? ???????????? ??p????? ???? ???p????????? ??p???? ??p??? ? ?????.

?p???????? ?????? ????????? ??????p? ? ????????? ??????, ????p? ? ?p????? ??p??????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????????, ? ?????? ???????? ? ???? p????p?????? ???p????? ????? ??p??????? ?????????, ????p?? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?p????????? ?? ?p? ??????? ??p?????? ?????????.

?p?????? ????p, ??p??????? ? ???????????, ?p???p????? ?? ????? 1931 ????. ??????, ? ????? ?????p? 1931 ???? ?? ??? ??????.

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???????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ? 1988 ?. ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????. ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????. ?????????, ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????, ??? ?????

?? ???????????? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????????, ?? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????, ????????????????? ??????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????.

? 1996 ?. ?? ?????????? ? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???? ? ? ?????????????? ?????. ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????, ? ????????? ?????? ? ?? ????? ?? ????? ? ???? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????????????. ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????: ?? ?? ?????? ?????, ?? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ??????.

???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????????. ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???????????????? ???? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ??????. ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ?? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????.

?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????, ? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????? ?????. ???????????? ???? ??? ????, ????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? 2004 ?. ??? ??????? ?.?. ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ??????.

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